Zyvox is an antimicrobial drug of the oxazolidinone group, intended for systemic use.
Release form and composition
Zyvox is available in the form:
- 600 mg coated tablets, in blisters of 10 pcs .;
- Solution for infusions of 2 mg / ml, in one-time infusional packages of 100 and 300 ml;
- Granules for the preparation of suspensions for oral administration of 100 mg / 5 ml, in bottles of 150 ml (complete with a measuring spoon).
The active ingredient of the drug is linezolid.
Indications for use
Zyvox is prescribed for infectious-inflammatory diseases in cases where it is already known or suspected that they are caused by anaerobic or aerobic gram-positive microorganisms that are susceptible to linezolid (including infections that are accompanied by bacteremia). In particular, the indications for the drug are:
- Community-acquired pneumonia, the causative agent of which is Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-resistant strains);
- Community-acquired pneumonia caused by methicillin-sensitive strains of Staphylococcus aureus;
- Hospital pneumonia, the causative agent of which is Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains);
- Hospital pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-resistant strains);
- Uncomplicated infections of the skin and soft tissues, the causative agents of which are Streptococcus pyogenes and methicillin-sensitive strains of Staphylococcus aureus;
- Complicated skin and soft tissue infections (including infections that developed in diabetic foot syndrome but not accompanied by osteomyelitis) caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains)
- Infections caused by Enterococcus faecium, but resistant to vancomycin.
Zyvox is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to linezolid or any auxiliary component.
The drug should not be prescribed to patients taking drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase A or B (for example, phenelzine or isocarboxazid), as well as for two weeks after the end of their reception.
In the form of tablets, Zyvox is not prescribed to children under 12 years of age, since it is not possible to select an adequate dose.
The careful observation and especially in need of blood pressure monitoring patients with thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma and uncontrolled hypertension, and patients receiving Dofaminomimetiki (including Dopamine) and agonists (e.g., epinephrine, phenylpropanolamine, norepinephrine, pseudoephedrine, dobugamin).
In addition, special control during treatment with Zyvox is necessary for patients with carcinoid syndrome (they have a risk of developing serotonin syndrome) and patients who receive serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 5-HT1 receptor agonists (triptans), tricyclic antidepressants, buspirone, meperidine.
With care, Zyvox is also used for:
- Renal / hepatic failure;
- Systemic infections that pose a risk to human life.
Studies on the safety of Zyvox during pregnancy have not been conducted, so pregnant women are prescribed the drug only for health reasons, when the benefits for the expectant mother outweigh the potential risks to the fetus.
Whether linezolid is excreted in breast milk has not been reliably established. Therefore, for the period of treatment it is recommended to stop breastfeeding.
Dosing and Administration
Infusion solution of Zyvox is injected drip in / in for 30-120 minutes. The dosage and duration of treatment is determined based on the type of pathogen, the localization of the infection, the severity of the disease, the effectiveness of the therapy.
Adults and children over 12 years old are usually prescribed 600 mg twice a day (with an interval of 12 hours).
For children under 12 years of age, the preparation is calculated on the basis of their weight - 10 mg / kg three times a day (with an interval of 8 hours).
The duration of treatment of community-acquired and hospital pneumonia, infections of the skin and soft tissues, as a rule, is 10-14 days, enterococcal infections - 14-28 days.
Intravenous Zyvox is usually prescribed at the beginning of treatment, and the patient is then transferred to the oral form of the drug. Do not recalculate the dose.
Most often, when using Zyvox, nausea, diarrhea and headache are noted.
Relatively frequent side effects of the drug are:
- Diarrhea / constipation;
- Stomach ache;
- Candidiasis of the oral mucosa;
- Skin rash;
- Vaginal candidiasis;
- Upper respiratory tract infections;
- Pain of unspecified location;
In rare cases, the following adverse reactions occur:
- Change the color of the language;
- Taste perversion;
- Opportunistic fungal infection;
- High blood pressure;
- Increasing the concentration of triglycerides, prolactin, creatinine, total bilirubin;
- Increased liver enzymes (including ALT, AST, ALP, ALT, amylase, lipase)
Lineloside, like almost all antibacterial drugs, disrupts the normal intestinal microflora, which leads to an overgrowth of the anaerobic gram-positive bacteria Clostridium difficile, which, in turn, produces toxins A and B, leading to the development of diarrhea, including severe.
Cases of Zyvox overdose are not known. If you accidentally take too large a dose, gastric lavage is recommended, further treatment is symptomatic. There are no data regarding the acceleration of linezolid elimination during hemoperfusion or peritoneal dialysis.
In the presence of infection caused by concomitant gram-negative microorganisms, or if it is suspected, in addition to Zyvox, drugs are prescribed that affect gram-negative flora.
In some cases, using linezolid may develop reversible myelosuppression (with thrombocytopenia, anemia, pancytopenia and leukopenia), which depends on the duration of treatment.
Given this fact, in the period of Zyvox therapy, monitoring of blood parameters in patients is necessary:
- with myelosuppression in history;
- receiving linozid more than 2 weeks;
- with an increased risk of bleeding;
- receiving drugs that reduce hemoglobin or platelet count or their functional properties.
It must be borne in mind that patients taking antibacterial drugs, including Zyvox, always have the risk of developing pseudomembranous colitis, including severe.
All patients taking Zyvox for a long time (more than 3 months) should regularly monitor their visual function. Especially advice from an ophthalmologist, regardless of the duration of treatment, is needed in case of symptoms of deterioration of visual function, such as visual field defects, blurred vision, changes in visual acuity and color perception.
During the period of treatment with Zyvox it is recommended to refrain from driving vehicles and special equipment, as well as from engaging in potentially hazardous activities.
- According to the active substance: Zenix, Amizolid and Linezolid-Teva;
- According to the mechanism of action: Hexamethylenetetramine, Galenofillipt, Dixin, 5-NOK, Dioxidin, Monural, Kubitsin, Nitroksolin, Kirin, Ristomycin Sulfate, Urofosfabol, Sangviritrin, Fosfomycin.
Terms and conditions of storage
Zyvox is a prescription drug.
Store it in a dark place at temperatures up to 30 ºC. The shelf life of the solution and tablets - 3 years, granules - 2 years. An opened bag with a solution cannot be stored, it should be used immediately. The suspension prepared from granules can be stored no more than 3 weeks.