Vivitrol is a drug, an opiate receptor blocker, used in the treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence.
Release form and composition
Vivitrol is available in the form of a powder intended for the preparation of a suspension for injection, the main active ingredient of which is naltrexone encapsulated in a glycolic and lactic acid copolymer.
The package also contains a solvent for the powder, which consists of water for injection, carmellose sodium, sodium chloride, polysorbate 20.
The packaging of Vivitrol contains a powder for the preparation of a suspension in a vial of 5 ml, a solvent in a vial of 5 ml, a syringe, two needles for injection and one needle for the preparation of a suspension.
Indications for use
According to the instructions, Vivitrol used:
- For the treatment of alcohol dependence in those individuals who, before starting therapy, may refrain from drinking alcohol;
- To prevent recurrence of opioid dependence (in patients who, at the beginning of drug treatment, may not use opioids).
According to the instructions, Vivitrol will not apply to:
- Use of narcotic analgesics;
- Hypersensitivity to naltrexone and other components of the drug or solvent;
- Use of opioids;
- Severe disorders in the liver;
- Pregnancy and lactation;
- In patients whose urine contains opioids or who have not undergone a provocative test with naloxone;
- In patients with opioid withdrawal symptoms;
- At the age of 18 years.
The drug is carefully prescribed for renal and hepatic failure.
Dosing and Administration
Vivitrol is intended only for intramuscular administration.
Injections should be carried out only by medical professionals using the components contained in the packaging, according to the instructions attached to Vivitrol.
Before applying the package with the drug is heated to room temperature for 45 minutes. Remove aluminum caps from powder and solvent vials and wipe the necks with an alcohol wipe. Putting a short needle on the syringe, take 3.4 ml of the solvent and inject it into the bottle with the powder. The powder and solvent are mixed by shaking the vial for one minute. Ready to use suspension should have a milky white color and should not contain lumps. After preparation of the suspension, 4.2 ml of the suspension are withdrawn into the syringe with the same needle. This needle is then replaced with a needle for injection. Before the introduction of the drug, you need to knock on the syringe to release air bubbles, and then gently press on the piston so that 4 ml of suspension remains in the syringe. Vivitrol is introduced deep into the gluteus muscle with a smooth movement. If the needle fell into the vessel, the procedure is repeated using a spare needle.
Vivitrol is administered once a month in the amount of 380 mg. When skipping a regular injection, the next one should be done as quickly as possible.
When using Vivitrol in patients with alcohol dependence, the following adverse reactions may occur:
- Respiratory system: laryngitis, pharyngitis, infections of the upper respiratory tract, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis;
- Gastrointestinal system: diarrhea, vomiting, gastrointestinal upset, stomach discomfort, abdominal pain, anorexia, dry mouth, anorexia;
- Nervous system: migraine, dizziness, headache, fainting, anxiety, drowsiness;
- Musculoskeletal system: pain and stiffness of the joints, arthritis, pain in the back and limbs, twitching, stiffness and muscle spasm;
- Skin and subcutaneous tissue: papular rash, rash, prickly heat;
- Reactions at the injection site: soreness, pain, induration, itching, swelling;
- General disorders: asthenia, lethargy, lethargy, hemorrhage.
When using Vivitrol in patients with opioid dependence, the same adverse reactions may develop as with alcohol dependence, and there may be an increase in the activity of GGT, AST, ALT, toothache, increased blood pressure, insomnia.
When using Vivitrol, it should be borne in mind that:
- Taking excessively high doses of the drug can lead to hepatocellular disorders;
- Since there is a risk of developing eosinophilic pneumonia when taking Vivitrol, patients should be warned that if you experience progressive shortness of breath and hypoxia, you should immediately seek medical help;
- If allergic reactions occur, discontinue therapy with the drug;
- Patients treated with Vivitrol may be sensitive to lower doses of opioids than before therapy, which can lead to opioid intoxication (life-threatening);
- Since one of the adverse reactions of the drug is dizziness, patients should refrain from driving and other mechanisms, and also refuse to perform work requiring increased concentration of attention and quickness of psychomotor reactions;
- 7-10 days before the start of treatment with Vivitrol, in order to avoid the development of acute withdrawal syndrome, patients should stop using opioids;
- In emergency situations, when patients receiving treatment with the drug need to relieve pain, regional analgesia or non-narcotic analgesics are used;
- Patients may have symptoms of depression or suicidal thoughts, which should be warned by caregivers. The occurrence of such symptoms must be reported to your doctor;
- Accidental administration of the drug under the skin increases the risk of serious adverse reactions. The injection needle that is included in the package should not be replaced with another needle.
Vivitrol analogs are drugs Naltrexone and Antakson.
Terms and conditions of storage
According to the instructions, Vivitrol should be stored at a temperature of 2-8 ° C in places with limited access of children, not more than three years. Allowed to store the drug at temperatures up to 25 ° C, but not more than 7 days.