Nalbuphine is an opioid analgesic.
Release form and composition
Nalbuphine is released in the form of a solution for injection: a colorless or slightly colored clear or slightly opalescent liquid (in glass ampoules of 1 ml; 5 or 10 ampoules in a cardboard bundle).
The composition of 1 ml of solution includes:
- Active ingredient: nalbuphine hydrochloride (in the form of dihydrate) - 10 or 20 mg.
- Auxiliary components: sodium chloride, anhydrous citric acid, sodium citrate dihydrate, water for injections.
Indications for use
- Severe pain, including postoperative pain and pain during childbirth (therapy);
- Anesthesia (as an additional drug).
- Alcohol psychosis, acute alcohol poisoning;
- Epileptic syndrome;
- Intracranial hypertension;
- Head injuries;
- Severe depression of the central nervous system and respiration;
- Acute surgical diseases of the abdominal organs (use is possible after diagnosis);
- Surgical interventions on the hepatobiliary system (due to the likelihood of spasm of the sphincter of Oddi);
- Drug dependence on morphine, promedol, fentanyl and other morphine-like drugs (due to the likelihood of withdrawal syndrome);
- Hypersensitivity to the drug.
Nalbuphine should be used with caution in the following diseases / conditions:
- Hepatic and / or renal failure;
- Respiratory failure (including uremia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease);
- Estimated immaturity of the fetus and preterm labor;
- Pregnancy and lactation;
- Children (up to 18 years) and advanced age.
Dosing and Administration
The solution is administered intramuscularly or intravenously.
The dosage regimen of Nalbuphine is set individually, depending on the intensity of the pain syndrome, the individual characteristics of the patient and the tolerability of the drug.
The recommended dose for adults is 0.15-0.3 mg / kg body weight. Between the introduction of single doses need to observe an interval of at least 4 hours. The maximum dose is: single - 0.3 mg / kg of body weight; daily - 2.4 mg / kg body weight. The duration of therapy should not exceed 3 days.
In the case of myocardial infarction, a single dose of 20 mg of the drug is administered slowly intravenously (if necessary, the dose may be increased to 30 mg). If there is no positive dynamics, after 30 minutes it is possible to re-administer 20 mg of Nalbuphine.
The dose of the drug for sedation is determined on the basis of the calculation - 0.1-0.2 mg / kg. For the introduction of anesthesia, 0.3-1 mg / kg of Nalbuphine is prescribed, then, to maintain anesthesia, every 30 minutes, 0.25-0.5 mg / kg.
Patients with opiate addiction may develop withdrawal syndrome, which is stopped by morphine. If the patient received therapy with morphine, codeine, or other opioid analgesics before using the drug, Nalbuphine should be used at a dosage of 25% of the standard dose.
Nalbuphine must be administered by a doctor with experience with this drug and subject to the availability of funds for treating overdose.
During the period of use of Nalbuphine, the development of side effects from some body systems is possible:
- Cardiovascular system: increase or decrease in blood pressure, brady- or tachycardia;
- Nervous System: dizziness, lethargy, confusion, drowsiness, headache, agitation, depression or euphoria;
- The digestive system: dyspepsia, nausea, dry mouth, vomiting, spastic pain;
- Respiratory system: reduction of minute volume of breath;
- Allergic reactions: itching, swelling of the larynx, urticaria, sneezing;
- Others: pain at the injection site, increased sweating, withdrawal syndrome (manifested in the form of spastic abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, rhinorrhea, lacrimation, weakness, anxiety, fever).
Patients in the period of use of Nalbuphine should refrain from conducting potentially hazardous activities that require increased attention and speed of psychomotor reactions.
Under strict medical supervision, Nalbuphine is used in combination with anesthetics, neuroleptic and hypnotic drugs, antidepressants, anxiolytics (with the use of such combinations, dose adjustment may be necessary).
Nalbuphine can not be used in combination with ethyl alcohol and other opioid analgesics. With its simultaneous use with phenothiazine derivatives and penicillins, the risk of nausea and vomiting increases.
Terms and conditions of storage
Keep out of reach of children at temperature up to 25 ºС.
Shelf life - 3 years.