Kanamycin is a broad-spectrum antibacterial drug of the aminoglycoside group, which is used to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms susceptible to it, including tuberculosis.
Release form and composition
The drug is available in powder form for solution for i / m and / in the introduction, as well as in the form of tablets for oral administration.
Kanamycin powder is sold in vials of 10 ml, which are placed in cardboard packs of 1, 10, 50 pcs.
The active substance Kanamycin for parenteral administration is kanamycin sulfate.
In 1 vial is 1 g or 500 mg of kanamycin sulfate.
The active substance of kanamycin tablets is kanamycin monosulfate. 1 tablet contains 0.125 g or 0.25 g (125,000 and 250,000 U) of the active substance.
Indications for use
Indications for parenteral use of Kanamycin are:
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases that are caused by microorganisms sensitive to the active substance;
- Tuberculosis with resistance of mycobacteria to ftivazidu and streptomycin.
Inside the drug is prescribed for the following indications:
- Intestinal infections that are caused by sensitive microflora, in particular, enterocolitis, bacterial colitis, dysentery, dysentery bacteriocarrier;
- Preparation for surgical interventions on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
Kanamycin is used topically in ophthalmology in the treatment of diseases such as conjunctivitis, keratitis, blepharitis, corneal ulcers.
It is not recommended to take Kanamycin for such diseases:
- Increased individual sensitivity to aminoglycosides;
- Decrease in hearing, in particular, with the defeat of the auditory nerve;
- Liver dysfunction;
- Obstruction of the digestive tract.
Contraindications for parenteral administration of Kanamycin are:
- Gestation period;
- Neuritis VIII pair of FMN;
- Severe chronic renal failure with uremia and azotemia.
Dosing and Administration
Kanamycin is introduced into / in (drip), in / m, in the cavity.
With intravenous drip infusion, a single dose of 0.5 g is dissolved in 200 ml of 5% dextrose solution and injected at a rate of 60-80 drops per minute.
Kanamycin is prescribed as follows:
- With tuberculosis. It is entered only in / m. Adult patients take 1 g once a day or 0.5 g 2 times a day. Children are assigned to 0.015-0.02 g / kg per day, but not more than 0.5-0.75 g. It is necessary to take a break every 7 day;
- With infections of non-tuberculosis nature. The single dose for adult patients is 0.5 g, the daily dose is 1-1.5 g. The maximum daily dose is -2 g. The duration of the course of therapy is 5-7 days. Children are given only IM at 0.05 g / kg per day. For children, the first month of life and premature infants are used only for health reasons.
When taken orally, a single dose for adults - 0.5-1 g, for children - 50 mg / kg per day. The frequency of admission is determined by the doctor.
In the treatment of infections of the respiratory tract and pulmonary tuberculosis, the drug is used in the form of heat-moist inhalation and aerosol. The powder (0.25-0.5 g) is dissolved in 3-5 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride solution or distilled water. For adults, a single dose is 0.5 g, for children - 5 mg / kg. The multiplicity of the drug - 2 times a day. At the same time, the daily dose for adults is 0.5-1 g, for children - 15 mg / kg. The duration of treatment for acute diseases is 7 days, for pulmonary tuberculosis - 30 days or more, for chronic pneumonia - 15-20 days.
In the cavity (abdominal, articular, pleural) for rinsing in 10-25 ml of an aqueous solution of 0.25%. Intraperitoneally administered 500 mg. In the case of peritoneal analysis, it is necessary to dissolve 1-2 g of the powder in the dialysis fluid (500 ml).
The initial dose is calculated based on body weight.
For patients with renal insufficiency, reduce the dose or increase the intervals between injections.
- On the part of the nervous system: weakness, drowsiness, headache, neurotoxic effect (feeling of numbness, tingling, paresthesia, muscle twitching, epileptic seizures), when administered parenterally, there is sometimes a neuromuscular blockade;
- From the hematopoietic system: thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia;
- On the part of the digestive system: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abnormal liver function; with prolonged ingestion - flatulence, diarrhea, frothy, bright, oily stools;
- On the part of the urinary system: thirst, decrease or increase in the frequency of urination, renal dysfunction;
- On the part of the senses: dizziness, discoordination of movements, feeling of laying or ringing in the ears, hearing loss, sometimes to irreversible deafness, neuritis of the acoustic nerve; in the case of local application - tearing, foreign body sensation in the eye, eyelid edema;
- Allergic reactions: hyperemia, itching, skin rash, fever, angioedema.
Kanamycin is not recommended to be used simultaneously or sequentially with antibacterial drugs that have nephrotoxic and ototoxic properties, as well as diuretics and muscle relaxants.
Only for health reasons, taking Kanamycin with caution in renal failure, botulism, parkinsonism, myasthenia, in elderly patients.
With Kanamycin therapy, kidney function must be monitored.
Patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract should take a large amount of fluid.
The effect of Kanamycin reduces the simultaneous use of beta-lactam antibiotics in patients with severe chronic renal failure.
The risk of nephro- and ototoxicity increases when Kanamycin and vancomycin, cisplatin, polymyxin and nalidixic acid are taken.
Increase the concentration of kanamycin in the serum and increase toxicity: NSAIDs, sulfonamides, penicillins, cephalosporins, diuretics (especially furosemide).
Kanamycin increases the muscle relaxant effect of polymyxins, general anesthetics and curariform drugs, reduces the effect of anti-myasthenic drugs.
Pharmaceutically incompatible Kanamycin with viomycin, nitofurantoin, erythromycin, amphotericin B, capreomycin, cephalosporins, heparin, penicillins, monomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin.
When used simultaneously with methoxyflurane, polymyxin for parenteral administration and other drugs that block neuromuscular transmission, the risk of nephrotoxic effects and respiratory depression increases.
Terms and conditions of storage
Store in a dark place at a temperature up to 25ºС.
Shelf life - 2 years.