Leukocyte human interferon is an immunomodulating drug with antiviral, antitumor and antiproliferative action.
Release form and composition
Interferon Dosage Forms:
- Solution for local and inhalation use 1000 IU / 1 ml (2 ml in ampoules, 5 and 10 ampoules in a carton; 2 ml in vials, 1, 5 or 10 bottles per package; in dropping bottles of 5 ml , 1 per pack);
- Lyophilisate for preparation of the solution for intranasal and inhalation use of 1000 IU (1 dose in an ampoule, 5 or 10 ampoules in a carton box);
- Lyophilisate for preparation of a solution for intramuscular administration of 10,000 IU / 1 dose (in ampoules, 5 or 10 ampoules per box complete with a solvent);
- Rectal suppositories 40 000 ME (10 packs each).
The active ingredient of the drug is interferon alpha.
Indications for use
Parenteral human interferon leukocyte is prescribed for:
- Hepatitis B and C;
- Multiple myeloma;
- Genital warts;
- Mushroom mycosis;
- Hairy cell leukemia;
- Non-Hodgkin lymphomas;
- Malignant melanoma;
- Renal carcinoma;
- Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients who do not have a history of acute infections.
Rectal Interferon is used in acute and chronic viral hepatitis.
Intranasal and inhalation drug is prescribed for the prevention and treatment of SARS and influenza.
Leukocyte interferon human is contraindicated in:
- Pronounced impaired renal / liver function;
- Severe organic heart disease;
- Chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis with symptoms of liver failure;
- Epilepsy and dysfunction of the central nervous system;
- Autoimmune hepatitis;
- Thyroid diseases that are not amenable to traditional methods of therapy;
- Chronic hepatitis in patients who have recently received or are currently receiving immunosuppressants (with the exception of GCS);
- Known hypersensitivity to interferon alfa.
In pregnancy, the drug can be used only if the benefit to the woman outweighs the possible risks to the fetus.
If you need treatment during lactation, breastfeeding should be discontinued.
Special observation during the period of use of Interferon is necessary for older people, patients with a history of myocardial infarction, as well as with myelodepression and changes in blood clotting.
With caution, the drug is used simultaneously with opioid analgesics, sedatives and hypnotics.
Dosing and Administration
The dose and duration of treatment, especially when administered parenterally, is determined by the doctor individually for each patient, taking into account the indications, the severity of the disease, the method of application and the body's response.
The average daily dose for the / m introduction, depending on the evidence:
- Hairy cell leukemia: 3 million IU for 16-24 weeks, then 3 million IU three times a week;
- Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: the first 3 days, 3 million IU each, the next 3 days, 9 million IU each, from 7 to 84 days, 18 million IU each. When maintenance therapy prescribed maximum tolerated dose, but not more than 18 million IU three times a week;
- Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with AIDS: the first 3 days - 3 million IU, the next 3 days - 9 million IU, from 7 to 9 days - 18 million IU, with good tolerance from 10 to 84 days - 36 million .IU. When maintenance therapy prescribed maximum tolerated dose, but not more than 36 million IU three times a week;
- Renal cell carcinoma: in the case of monotherapy, 36 million IU, in combination with vinblastine, three times a week, 18 million IU each. The dose is increased gradually, starting treatment with 3 million IU. The course of treatment is 84 days;
- Melanoma: 18 million IU three times a week for 8-12 weeks;
- Chronic myeloid leukemia and thrombocytosis in chronic myeloid leukemia: the first 3 days - 3 million IU, the next 3 days - 6 million IU, from 7 to 84 days - 9 million IU. The general course of treatment is 8-12 weeks;
- Thrombocytosis in myeloproliferative diseases (except for chronic myeloid leukemia): the first 3 days, 3 million IU each, from day 4 to 30, 6 million IU each;
- Chronic hepatitis C: for 3 months - 6 million IU three times a week, for another 3 months - 3 million IU three times a week;
- Chronic active hepatitis B: 4.5 million IU three times a week. Duration of treatment - 6 months;
- Primary and secondary thrombocytosis: 2 million IU 5 times a week for 4-5 weeks. If after 2 weeks the number of platelets does not decrease, the daily dose is increased to 3 million IU, if there is no effect by the end of the third week of treatment - to 6 million IU;
- Baseline thrombocytopenia (less than 15 G / l): 0.5 million IU each;
- The transitional phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia and myelofibrosis: 1-3 million IU;
- Multiple myeloma: 1 million IU every other day in combination with corticosteroids and cytostatics. The minimum course of treatment is 2 months.
In acute and chronic viral hepatitis, as a rule, 1 suppository is prescribed per day. The course of treatment is 10 days.
In case of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections, a solution is prepared from the lyophilisate using distilled or boiled water at room temperature: it is poured directly into the ampoule to the mark corresponding to 2 ml, then it is shaken well until the powder is completely dissolved. The contents of the ampoule with the prepared solution is also diluted with 2 ml of water.
For the prevention of influenza and SARS, Interferon is recommended to begin to apply when there is a threat of infection and to continue therapy until the danger of infection persists. The drug is instilled into each nasal passage of 5 drops (or sprayed with 0.25 ml) twice a day with a minimum interval of 6 hours.
With the purpose of treatment Interferon human leukocyte should begin to apply when the first signs of "cold". Instill a solution of 5 drops in each nasal passage at least 5 times a day at intervals of 1-2 hours for 2-3 days.
Another effective method of use is inhalation (through the mouth or nose). For one inhalation, the contents of 3 ampoules are dissolved in 10 ml of water, heated slightly (maximum to a temperature of 37 ºС), the procedures are carried out 2 times a day.
Possible side effects of human Leukocyte Interferon:
- Flu-like symptoms: weakness, headache, fever, myalgia;
- From the side of the central nervous system: ataxia, impaired consciousness, drowsiness, nervousness, depression, sleep disorders;
- Since the cardiovascular system: arrhythmia, arterial hypotension;
- On the part of the digestive tract: loss of appetite, heartburn, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abnormal liver function;
- Dermatological reactions: dry skin, skin rash, slight alopecia, erythema;
- From the side of blood-forming organs: granulocytopenia;
- Others: joint pain, sweating, weight loss, visual disturbances.
Most often undesirable reactions are observed with parenteral administration.
The earlier the use of Interferon for influenza and acute respiratory viral infections, the higher the effectiveness of the drug.
If the number of platelets with thrombocytopenia is less than 50 thousand / μl, the drug is administered subcutaneously.
With the development of side effects from the central nervous system in older people who receive high doses of interferon alpha, conduct an additional examination. In some cases, treatment must be interrupted.
During the period of use, it is necessary to ensure sufficient fluid intake in the body, especially at the beginning of treatment, to monitor liver function and the content of blood cells. Patients of childbearing age are encouraged to use reliable methods of contraception.
Before treating hepatitis C, serum TSH levels should be determined. Interferon can be administered only in the case of a normal indicator.
It is recommended to avoid combinations of interferon with immunosuppressants and drugs that have an effect on the central nervous system.
If flu-like symptoms occur, paracetamol is prescribed.
Interferons inhibit oxidative metabolism in the liver, so the biotransformation of drugs that metabolize in this way may be disturbed.
With simultaneous use of the drug with zidovudine, synergism is possible in relation to myelotoxic action, with ACE inhibitors - synergism of hematotoxic action, with theophylline - reduction of its clearance, with paracetamol - increased activity of liver enzymes.
Alphaferon, Wellferon, Interferon alfa-2b human recombinant, Interferon alfa-2 recombinant hydrogel-based ointment, Inferon, Lokferon.
Terms and conditions of storage
Store at a temperature of 2-10 ºC. Keep out of the reach of children!
Shelf life - 2 years. The solution prepared from a lyophilisate can be stored no more than 2 days in the refrigerator.