Glucose is a drug for parenteral nutrition, rehydration (dehydration) and detoxification.
Release form and composition
Glucose is made in powder form, in the form of tablets in packs of 20 pieces, as well as in the form of a solution of 5% for injection in vials of 400 ml, 40% solution in ampoules of 10 or 20 ml.
The active ingredient of the drug is dextrose monohydrate.
Indications for use
According to the instructions, Glucose as a solution is used in the following cases:
- Isotonic extracellular dehydration;
- As a source of carbohydrates;
- For the purpose of cultivation and transportation of medicinal substances used parenterally.
Glucose tablets prescribed for:
- Lack of carbohydrate food;
- Intoxications, including those resulting from liver disease (hepatitis, degeneration, atrophy);
- Toxic infections;
- Shock and collapse;
- Dehydration (postoperative period, vomiting, diarrhea).
According to the instructions, glucose is prohibited to use when:
- Hyperosmolar coma;
- Decompensated diabetes;
- Glucose immunity (with metabolic stress).
Glucose is prescribed with caution when:
- Chronic renal failure (anuria, oliguria);
- Decompensated heart failure of a chronic nature.
Dosing and Administration
Glucose solution 5% (isotonic) is injected drip (into a vein). The maximum rate of administration is 7.5 ml / min (150 drops) or 400 ml / h. Dosage for adults is 500-3000 ml per day.
For newborns whose body weight does not exceed 10 kg, the optimal dosage of Glucose is 100 ml per kg of body weight per day. Children whose body weight is 10-20 kg, take 150 ml per kg of body weight per day, more than 20 kg — 170 ml per kg of body weight per day.
The maximum dose is 5-18 mg per kg of body weight per minute, depending on age and body weight.
Hypertonic Glucose Solution (40%) is administered by dropping at a rate of up to 60 drops per minute (3 ml per minute). The maximum dose for adults is 1000 ml per day.
For intravenous injection, Glucose 5 and 10% solutions are used at a dosage of 10-50 ml. In order to avoid hyperglycemia, do not exceed the recommended dosage.
In diabetes, the use of glucose should be carried out under regular control of its concentration in urine and blood. In order to dilute and transport drugs used parenterally, the recommended dose of glucose is 50-250 ml per dose. The dose and rate of administration of the solution depend on the characteristics of the drug dissolved in Glucose.
Glucose tablets are taken orally, 1-2 tablets per day.
The use of glucose 5% in large doses can cause overhydration (excess fluid in the body), accompanied by a violation of water-salt balance.
With the introduction of a hypertonic solution in the case of ingestion of the drug under the skin, necrosis of the subcutaneous tissue occurs, with very rapid administration, phlebitis (inflammation of the veins) and blood clots (blood clots) are possible.
With too fast introduction and long-term use of glucose are possible:
- Osmotic diuresis (due to hyperglycemia);
If overdose symptoms occur, it is recommended to take measures for their elimination and supportive therapy, including with the use of diuretics.
Signs of overdose caused by additional drugs, diluted in 5% glucose solution, are determined primarily by the properties of these drugs. In the event of an overdose, it is recommended to leave the introduction of the solution and conduct symptomatic and supportive treatment.
Cases of drug interaction of glucose with other drugs are not described.
During pregnancy and breastfeeding, glucose is allowed for use.
In order to better assimilate glucose, patients are simultaneously prescribed insulin insulin at the rate of 1 U per 4-5 g of glucose.
It is not recommended to administer Glucose immediately after blood transfusions in the same system, since there is a possibility of thrombosis and hemolysis.
Glucose solution is suitable for use only under the condition of transparency, package integrity and the absence of visible impurities. You should use the solution immediately after attaching the vial to the infusion system.
It is forbidden to use glucose solution in series connected containers, as this may cause the development of an air embolism due to the intake of air remaining in the first packet.
Other drugs should be added to the solution before or during the infusion by injection into the designated area of the container. When adding the drug should check the isotonicity of the resulting solution. The solution resulting from mixing should be applied immediately after preparation.
The container should be discarded immediately after using the solution, regardless of whether the medicine remains in it or not.
Structural analogues of glucose are the following drugs:
- Glucose Brown;
- Glucose Bufus;
- Glucose Eskom;
- Dextrose Vial;
- Peritoneal analysis solution with glucose and low calcium.
Terms and conditions of storage
According to the instructions, Glucose in any dosage form should be stored at a cool temperature, out of the reach of children. The shelf life of the drug depends on the manufacturer and ranges from 1.5 to 3 years.