Doxycycline refers to the antibiotics of the tetracycline group.
Release form and composition
- Doxycycline Capsules containing 100 mg doxycycline hydrochloride each. In blister packs of 10;
- Doxycycline lyophilisate for preparing a solution for infusion, containing 100 or 200 mg of doxycycline hydrochloride. In ampoules or vials.
Indications for use
According to the instructions, doxycycline is indicated for use in the following cases:
- Infections of upper respiratory tract (sinusitis, otitis media, tonsillitis);
- Infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract (acute bronchitis, tracheitis, empyema, bronchopneumonia, lung abscess, pneumonia);
- Infections of the biliary tract and gastrointestinal tract (gastroenterocolitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis);
- Urogenital system infections (pyelonephritis, cystitis, endometritis, urethro-cystitis, endocervicitis, gonorrhea);
- Infectious diseases of the eye;
- Infections of the skin and soft tissues (furunculosis, cellulitis, wounds, infected burns, abscess);
- Syphilis, malaria, cholera, amoebic and bacillary dysentery, Lyme disease, typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, rickettsiosis, yersiniosis, chlamydia, yaws.
As part of the combined treatment, doxycycline is prescribed for trachoma, leptospirosis, ornithosis, psittacosis, sepsis, whooping cough, osteomyelitis, subacute septic endocarditis.
For the purpose of prophylaxis, the use of Doxycycline is advisable to prevent malaria during short travel, as well as in the postoperative period to prevent purulent complications.
According to the instructions, doxycycline is contraindicated in:
- Severe liver failure;
- Hypersensitivity to the active component of the drug;
- 2 and 3 trimesters of pregnancy and breastfeeding;
- Children under 8 years.
Dosing and Administration
Doxycycline capsules are used inside. Dosage of the drug depends on the type of infection and severity of symptoms:
- Urinary tract infections - 200 mg per day throughout the entire period of treatment;
- Gonorrhea - the drug is taken on 100 mg per day until complete cure (for women) or 100 mg twice a day for a week (for men);
- Syphilis - 300 mg per day for 10 days or more;
- Uncomplicated infections of the cervix, urethra, rectum - 100 mg twice a day for a week or more;
- Infections of the male genital organs - 100 mg twice a day for a month;
- Malaria - 200 mg per day for a week;
- Malaria prevention –100 mg per day, 1-2 days before the trip, throughout the trip and within a month after returning;
- Infections prevention in the postoperative period - 100 mg an hour before surgery and 200 mg - after surgery;
- Acne - 100 mg per day for 1.5-3 months.
Doxycycline in the form of a lyophilisate is administered intravenously in severe forms of purulent-septic diseases, when there is a need to create high concentrations in tissues and blood.
Step therapy is recommended, that is, as soon as it becomes possible, it is necessary to switch to the oral form of the drug. For adult patients, the average daily dose of doxycycline is 200 mg. The drug is administered once a day or every 12 hours in 100 mg. The duration of therapy depends on the type of disease, its severity and the effectiveness of therapy. On average, intravenous administration of doxycycline is 3-5 days. If there is a good parenteral tolerance of the drug, it is possible to extend the therapy up to 7 days, but subsequently move to the oral form of administration.
The use of doxycycline may cause the following side effects:
- Nervous system: headache, vomiting, loss of appetite, swelling of the optic nerve head, dizziness;
- Digestive system: nausea, diarrhea or constipation, enterocolitis;
- Urinary system: an increase in serum nitrogen levels;
- Hematopoietic system: thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, eosinophilia, neutropenia;
- Allergies: itchy skin, maculopapular rash, angioedema, lupus erythematosus, skin flushing;
- Other Doxycycline reactions: superinfection, photosensitivity, vaginal or intestinal candidiasis, persistent discoloration of tooth enamel.
Doxycycline should be used during the daytime and at the time of therapy to consume a large amount of fluid. This will help prevent the local irritant effect of the drug.
Since photosensitization is one of the side effects of the medication, it is recommended to limit sun exposure for the duration of therapy, as well as for 4-5 days after treatment.
With prolonged use of the drug, patients should monitor the function of the liver and blood-forming organs. Since Doxycycline may mask manifestations of syphilis, a serological analysis should be performed once a month during therapy.
During the experiments, it was revealed that Doxycycline is able to exert a toxic effect on the fetus, causing a delay in skeletal development. Therefore, the drug is strictly contraindicated in the 2 and 3 trimesters of pregnancy. In the first trimester, the expediency of doxycycline should be compared with the possible risks to the fetus. Since doxycycline hydrochloride is excreted in breast milk, for the period of therapy should refrain from lactation.
For the entire period of treatment with Doxycycline, patients are advised to refrain from controlling potentially dangerous mechanisms that require increased concentration of attention.
Structural analogues of doxycycline are:
- Doxycycline hydrochloride;
- Unidox Solutab;
Terms and conditions of storage
According to the instructions, doxycycline is stored in a dry, dark, out of reach of children, cool place. The shelf life of the lyophilisate is 2 years, capsules - 4 years.