Diazepam is a medication with central muscle relaxant, anxiolytic, sedative, anticonvulsant and hypnotic actions, used to relieve internal tension, anxiety, fear, anxiety, for the treatment of sleep disorders, convulsive paroxysms in epilepsy. The drug reduces blood pressure, increases the threshold of pain sensitivity, has an antiarrhythmic effect.
Release form and composition
Diazepam is available in the form of tablets, pills, solution for rectal administration and solution for injection with the same active ingredient.
Diazepam tablets are available in 5 or 10 mg, 20 or 24 pieces per pack; injection solution - in ampoules, 10 pieces per pack; Bean - 2 and 5 mg, 30 pieces per pack; solution for rectal administration - 5 and 10 mg, in tubes 2.5 ml.
Indications for use
According to the instructions, Diazepam is applied:
- As an anticonvulsant for epilepsy, tetanus;
- As an anxiolytic, sedative and hypnotic in all types of anxiety disorders, anxiety syndrome, endogenous mental diseases, with organic brain lesions, with paranoid hallucinatory conditions, with senesto-hypochondriac, obsessive and phobic disorders, with motor arousal of various etiologies, somatotetohepathy. disorders, tension headache, vertebral syndrome, sleep disorders, abstinence syndrome, angina pectoris, hypertension, myocardial infarction Arda; as premedication before operations and endoscopic procedures; as induction anesthesia; to facilitate labor, with preterm labor, premature placental abruption; for menopausal and psychosomatic menstrual disorders; with eczema and other diseases associated with itching and irritability;
- As a muscle relaxant for spastic conditions associated with damage to the spinal cord or brain; with spasm of skeletal muscles in trauma; with spastic conditions accompanying other diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
According to the instructions, Diazepam is contraindicated in:
- The presence of a patient's hypersensitivity to the drug;
- Drug or alcohol dependence (except for the treatment of acute withdrawal syndrome);
- Acute diseases of the kidneys and liver;
- Severe myasthenia;
- Severe liver failure;
- Severe respiratory failure;
- The presence of a patient suicidal tendencies;
- Cerebral and spinal ataxia;
- Angle-closure glaucoma and acute glaucoma;
- Severe hypercapnia;
And also in the first trimester of pregnancy, during breastfeeding and at the age of up to one month.
Diazepam, according to the instructions, carefully prescribed for:
- Sleep apnea syndrome;
- Chronic respiratory failure;
- Open-angle glaucoma;
- Pronounced disorders in the kidneys;
- Pregnancy (second and third trimesters);
And also at the age of 6 months.
Dosing and Administration
Diazepam tablets and dragees are intended for oral administration; injection - for intravenous and intramuscular administration; solution for rectal administration - for administration to the rectum.
Diazepam dosage is determined in each case individually depending on the course of the disease, indications and tolerability of the drug. Therapy begins with the lowest effective dose.
As a rule, diazepam tablets and dragees are prescribed in the initial dose of 5-10 mg. The maximum single dose is 20 mg, daily - 60 mg.
Diazepam in the form of a solution for injection is prescribed in an average single dose of 10 mg, while the maximum single dose is 30 mg, the average daily dose is 30 mg, and the maximum daily dose is 70 mg.
The duration of diazepam therapy in the form of injections is no more than 3-5 days, then it is possible to switch to pills and pills, but the total duration of therapy should not be more than 2-3 months.
It is possible to repeat the course of treatment, but not earlier than 3 weeks after the end of the previous one and after assessing the patient’s condition.
In children, the dosage and duration of therapy are selected individually depending on age, weight, disease.
In old age and with abnormal liver function, treatment begins with the lowest doses.
When using Diazepam, adverse reactions may develop:
- Cardiovascular system and blood system: neutropenia, bradycardia;
- Nervous system and sensory organs: fatigue, drowsiness, lethargy, dulling of emotions, ataxia, blurred vision, nystagmus, diplopia, tremor, deterioration of short-term memory, responsiveness and level of concentration, blurred speech, dysarthria, depression, confusion, fainting, dizziness, headache, anterograde amnesia, paradoxical reactions;
- Digestive system: violation of salivation, constipation, nausea;
- Other: allergic reactions, urinary retention, urinary incontinence, changes in libido, jaundice, increased activity of liver enzymes and alkaline phosphatase.
When using Diazepam, it should be borne in mind that:
- During the period of drug treatment should not drink alcohol;
- With long-term drug treatment requires monitoring the pattern of peripheral blood and liver function;
- The drug reduces the level of concentration and speed of psychomotor reactions;
- The drug can be addictive (especially when using Diazepam in large doses and for a long time), therefore, it is gradually canceled;
- The introduction of the drug in doses of more than 30 mg 15 hours before delivery may lead to the development of hypothermia in the newborn, hypotension, apnea and other undesirable reactions;
- It is impossible to mix in one syringe Diazepam with other medicines.
Diazepam's analogues include such drugs as Valium, Apaurin, Relanium, Seduxen, Relium, Sibazon.
Terms and conditions of storage
The drug is stored at a temperature of 15-25 ° in places with limited access of children no more than two years.