Dextrose is a drug from the group of carbohydrate food. Used for detoxification and rehydration, parenteral found.
Release form and composition
Dextrose Dosage Forms:
- Isotonic solution for infusions (5%);
- Hypertonic solution for infusions (10%).
The active component of the drug is the same substance.
The product is available in 100 ml vials or bottles of glass.
Indications for use
Dextrose (or glucose) is a substance that provides substrate replenishment of the body's energy costs.
Introduction of a hypertonic solution into a vein contributes to an increase in the osmotic pressure of the blood, it allows to increase the flow of fluids from the tissues into the bloodstream, increase metabolic processes, improve the antitoxic function of the liver, increase the contractile activity of the heart muscle, expand the blood vessels and increase diuresis.
According to the instructions for Dextrose, a five percent isotonic solution is indicated to replenish the BCC (circulating blood volume). In addition, Dextrose is used as an infusion medium or neutral solvent for the administration of other drugs.
The calorific value of 1 l of 5% solution is 840 kJ, 10% - 1680 kJ.
Given the pharmacological properties of dextrose, the solution is advisable to apply when:
- Lack of carbohydrate food;
- Toxic infections;
- Hemorrhagic diathesis;
- Liver diseases that are accompanied by intoxication;
The use of dextrose is contraindicated in:
- Poisoning of the body with a liquid (with overhydration, including intracellular, which is manifested by swelling of the brain, lungs, acute heart and / or kidney failure, hyperosmolar coma);
- Developed after surgery, disorders of glucose utilization.
Following the recommendations given in the instructions for Dextrose, the solution should be carefully administered to patients with decompensated cardiac and chronic renal failure, as well as in conditions accompanied by hyponatremia.
Dosing and Administration
Isotonic Dextrose Solution (5%) is administered:
- Subcutaneously, 300-500 ml (and more);
- Intravenous drip method (from 300 ml to 1-2 liters per day).
The maximum rate of administration of a 5% solution is 150 drops (which corresponds to 7 ml of dextrose) per minute or 400 ml per hour.
Hypertonic solution, according to the instructions, should be injected into the vein jet. A single dose is from 10 to 50 ml. In some cases, in case of acute need, it is allowed to administer the solution intravenously in the drip method, but at a dose not exceeding 250-300 ml per day.
The maximum rate of administration is 10% Dextrose - 60 drops per minute (which corresponds to 3 ml of solution). The highest daily intake for an adult is 1 liter.
If the solution is used for parenteral nutrition in adults with normally flowing metabolism, the daily dose is usually determined taking into account the patient's weight - at the rate of 4-6 g per kilogram of body weight (this corresponds to about 250-450 g per day). For patients in whom the metabolic rate is reduced, the use of Dextrose is shown in a lower dose (usually it is 200-300 g). The volume of injected fluid in this case should be from 30 to 40 ml / kg per day.
The rate of introduction of the solution in the normal state of metabolism is from 0.25 to 0.5 g / h per kilogram of body weight. If the course of metabolic processes is slow, the rate of administration should be halved - to 0.125-0.25 g / h for each kilogram of body weight.
Children for parenteral nutrition Dextrose is administered as follows:
- 6 g / kg per day - on the first day;
- 15 g / kg per day - in the following days.
The solution is prescribed along with amino acids and fats.
When calculating the dose of Dextrose, the allowable volume of injected fluid must be taken into account. For children who weigh from 2 to 10 kg, it is 100-165 ml / kg per day, for children weighing from 10 to 40 kg - depending on the state of 45-100 ml / kg per day.
The maximum rate of administration is 0.75 g / h per kilogram of body weight.
Basically, the drug is well tolerated. Sometimes infusions with dextrose can cause the development of fever, impaired water-salt balance (including hyperglycemia, hypervolemia, hypomagnesemia, etc.), and acute left ventricular failure.
Symptoms of an overdose of dextrose are glycosuria, hyperglycemia, disruption of water and electrolyte balance. With their development, infusion should be stopped and insulin should be administered to the patient. Further treatment is symptomatic.
In order to improve the absorption of dextrose, used in higher doses, it is recommended to prescribe insulin to the patient along with it. Drugs administered in such proportions - 1 U insulin 4-5 grams of dextrose.
The use of dextrose in combination with other drugs requires the control of pharmacological compatibility.
Both five- and ten-percent solution for infusions can be used if indicated during periods of pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Diabetics dextrose should be administered under the control of its content in urine and blood.
There is no data that would indicate a negative effect of the drug on the speed of motor and mental reactions. That is, the solution does not violate the ability of a person to drive a vehicle or perform potentially hazardous work or health.
Synonyms of Dextrose - Glucose and Glucosteril.
Analogs of action: Amino, Amino SMOPKabiven, Moriamin C-2.
Terms and conditions of storage
Store at a temperature not exceeding 25 ºC. Protect from sunlight. Do not freeze. Shelf life - 36 months.