Benzylpenicillin is an antibacterial drug belonging to the group of biosynthetic penicillins.
Release form and composition
Benzylpenicillin is available in powder form for the preparation of an injection solution, the main active ingredient of which is the sodium salt of benzylpenicillin.
The drug is available in bottles of 500,000 and 100,000 IU.
Indications for use
According to the instructions, benzylpenicillin is used for:
- Croupous and focal pneumonia;
- Empyema pleura;
- Acute and chronic osteomyelitis;
- Acute and subacute septic endocarditis;
- Biliary tract infections;
- Urinary tract infections;
- Purulent infections of soft tissues, skin, mucous membranes;
- Scarlet fever;
and is also used in ophthalmic, otolaryngological, and obstetric-gynecological practices.
According to the instructions, benzylpenicillin is contraindicated in:
- The patient’s high sensitivity to benzylpenicillin and other penicillins and cephalosporins;
- Epilepsy (endolyumbalnoe introduction).
Dosing and Administration
Benzylpenicillin is intended for intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous and endolyumbal administration.
Daily dosage of the drug:
- Intramuscular and intravenous administration - 250000-60000000 IU (adults); 50000-100000 IU per kilogram of weight (0-12 months); 50,000 IU per kilogram (over 12 months); it is possible to increase the dosage to 200,000-300,000 IU per kilogram of weight, as well as to 500,000 IU per kilogram of weight for health reasons. The drug is administered 4-6 times a day;
- Endolumbal introduction - 5000-10000 IU (adults); 2000-5000 IU (children). Benzylpenicillin is diluted with water for injection or 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The cerebrospinal fluid, extracted before injection, is added to the drug solution in a 1: 1 ratio.
- Subcutaneous injection - 100000-200000 U, diluted in 1 ml of a 0.25-0.5% solution of novocaine (for breaking in infiltrates).
The duration of benzylpenicillin is from 7-10 days to 2 months or more, depending on the disease, its form and severity of the course.
When using benzylpenicillin, certain side reactions may occur:
- Central nervous system: neurotoxic reactions in the form of nausea, vomiting, increased reflex excitability, convulsions, symptoms of meningism, coma (when using the drug in high doses, often with endolyumbalnom introduction);
- Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
- Allergic reactions: urticaria, fever, skin rashes, mucous membranes, eosinophilia, joint pain, angioedema, anaphylactic shock;
- Effects associated with the chemotherapeutic action of the drug: candidiasis of the oral cavity and vagina.
When using benzylpenicillin, it should be borne in mind that:
- It should be used carefully in patients with impaired renal function, if there is a predisposition to allergic reactions and heart failure;
- Because of the possible development of fungal superinfection, antifungal agents should be prescribed simultaneously with this drug;
- If after 3-5 days from the moment of the start of treatment with the drug there is no effect, then it is necessary to change the antibiotic or go to the combination therapy;
- Subtherapeutic doses of benzylpenicillin or early cessation of therapy may lead to the emergence of resistant strains of pathogens;
- During pregnancy, the drug can be used only if the intended effect of therapy for the mother is higher than the risk for the child;
- Breast-feeding while using this drug should be discontinued;
- The concentration of the drug in the blood increases while taking probenecid;
- The bactericidal effect of benzylpenicillin is reduced with the simultaneous use of antibiotics with a bacteriostatic action (tetracycline).
Benzylpenicillin analogues are the following drugs: Benzylpenicillin potassium salt, Benzylpenicillin sodium salt, Benzylpenicillin novocaine salt, Novocin, Procaine-Benzylpenicillin, Procaine penicillin, Penicillin G sodium salt.
Terms and conditions of storage
The drug is stored at a temperature of not more than 10º in places protected from light, not more than two years.