Alprazolam is an anxiolytic, a triazolo-benzodiazepine derivative. The drug has a sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic and central muscle relaxant effect. Alprazolam belongs to the list No. 1 of potent drugs.
Release form and composition of alprazolam
The drug is available in the form of tablets, 10 pieces in a blister (5 blisters in a carton) and 50 pieces in a polymer can (1 can in a carton). One Alprazolam tablet contains 0.25 mg or 1 mg alprazolam, as well as additional ingredients, including milk sugar.
Indications for use Alprazolam
According to the instructions for Alprazolam, indications for use are the following states:
- Neurosis and anxiety, accompanied by feelings of anxiety, anxiety, tension, irritability, sleep disturbances and somatic disorders;
- Panic disorders with and without phobic symptoms;
- Neurotic depression and anxiety, developed on the background of somatic diseases;
- Neurotic reactive depressive states that are accompanied by a loss of interest in the environment, a decrease in mood, loss of sleep, anxiety, somatic disorders and a decrease in appetite.
Contraindications to the use of alprazolam are shock, coma, acute alcoholic poisoning closure glaucoma, poisoning by psychotropic, hypnotics and analgesics, chronic obstructive airways disease, severe depression with suicidal manifestations, acute respiratory failure, pregnancy (especially 1 trimester), lactation, children and adolescence, benzodiazepine hypersensitivity.
Dosing and Administration Alprazolam
The dosage of the drug is determined by the doctor individually. It is recommended to use the minimum effective dose. Possible dose adjustment depending on the tolerability of the drug and the effect achieved. The initial dose - 250-500 mg 3 times a day, it can be gradually increased to 4.5 mg per day. Cancellation of Alprazolam or dose reduction should be carried out gradually, lowering the daily dose by no more than 500 micrograms every 3 days. In some cases, even more slow drug withdrawal is needed.
Side Effects of Alprazolam
According to the instructions for Alprazolam, the following undesirable effects are possible with its use:
- From the side of the central nervous system - a feeling of fatigue, drowsiness, dizziness, ataxia, instability of gait, decreased concentration, depression, memory loss, depressed mood, myasthenia, weakness; in some cases, paradoxical reactions (irritability, suicidal tendencies, hallucinations, psychomotor agitation, confusion, outbursts of aggression, muscle spasm);
- On the part of the hematopoietic system - neutropenia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, anemia;
- On the part of the digestive system - heartburn, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, loss of appetite, jaundice, impaired liver function;
- On the part of the endocrine system - a violation of libido, a change in body weight, failure of the menstrual cycle;
- On the part of the urinary system - urinary retention, urinary incontinence, dysmenorrhea, impaired renal function;
- Since the cardiovascular system: tachycardia, lowering blood pressure;
- Allergic reactions - itching, skin rash.
Alprazolam can be used with antidepressants in the treatment of endogenous depressions. In this case, there is a likelihood of the patient developing a manic and hypomania state.
In patients who have not previously taken drugs that affect the central nervous system, Alprazolam is effective in lower doses, compared with patients who have previously received anxiolytics or antidepressants.
With long-term intake of the drug in high doses, the development of addiction and dependence is possible, especially in patients prone to drug abuse.
With abrupt cancellation or reduction of the dose of Alprazolam, withdrawal syndrome is observed: from insomnia and small dysphoria to severe spasms in the skeletal muscles and abdomen, accompanied by cramps, tremors and increased sweating. Most often, withdrawal syndrome occurs in patients who have taken the drug for a long period.
There is an increase in the inhibitory effect of the drug on the central nervous system with the simultaneous use of anticonvulsant and psychotropic drugs.
The safety of the use of this drug in children and adolescents up to 18 years is not established. But it is noted that children are more sensitive to the depressant effect of benzodiazepines on the central nervous system. In the first trimester of pregnancy, the use of Alprazolam has a toxic effect on the fetus, increasing the risk of developing congenital malformations. Its constant use during pregnancy can lead to withdrawal symptoms in the newborn. Taking the drug before childbirth can cause a decrease in muscle tone, respiratory depression, hypothermia, and hypotension in the newborn. Possible release of benzodiazepines in breast milk, which leads to difficulty feeding because of drowsiness of the infant.
During treatment, it is strictly forbidden to consume alcoholic beverages.
It should not be used simultaneously with Alprazolam other types of tranquilizers. During treatment, it is recommended to refrain from driving vehicles and other activities that require high concentration of attention.
With caution, the drug is used in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function.
The most common analogues of Alprazolam are Alzolam, Heleks and Zolomax.
Terms and conditions of storage
Alprazolam should be stored at a temperature of 15-30 ° C, in a place protected from the sun. The shelf life of the drug is 5 years.