Epinephrine is an adrenergic mimic that has a direct stimulatory effect on α- and β-adrenoreceptors. Increases strength and heart rate, minute and stroke volume of the heart. It has a positive effect on AV conductivity, increases myocardial oxygen demand and increases automatism. Causes vasoconstriction of the mucous membranes, abdominal organs and skeletal muscles. Increases blood pressure. Epinephrine (Adrenaline) lowers the tone and motility of the gastrointestinal tract, relaxes the smooth muscles of the bronchi, leads to a decrease in intraocular pressure. Increases the content of free fatty acids in plasma and causes hyperglycemia.
Release form and composition
The drug is available in the form of a solution for injection. 1 ml of solution contains 1 mg of adrenaline hydrochloride. In one package - 1 bottle of 30 ml or 5 ampoules of 1 ml.
Indications for use Adrenaline
The instructions for adrenaline are the following indications for its use:
- The attack of asthma, bronchospasm during anesthesia;
- Allergic reactions of immediate type, developing with the use of drugs, eating foods, blood transfusions, insect bites, etc .;
- Bleeding from the mucous membranes or superficial vessels of the skin;
- Hypoglycemia with insulin overdose;
- The need to increase the duration of action of local anesthetics;
- Open-angle glaucoma;
Contraindications to the use of epinephrine are arterial hypertension, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, tachyarrhythmia, pheochromocytoma, ventricular fibrillation, coronary artery disease, hypersensitivity to epinephrine, pregnancy and lactation.
Dosing and Administration Adrenaline
Adrenaline Dosage - Individual. Depending on the clinical situation, a single dose for an adult ranges from 200 μg to 1 mg, for a child - 100-500 μg. Injection solution can be used as eye drops. Local Adrenaline is used to stop bleeding, wetting cotton swabs in solution.
Adrenaline side effects
The instructions for adrenaline indicate several groups of side effects from the use of the drug.
Since the cardiovascular system: tachycardia, bradycardia, angina, increased or decreased blood pressure. When used in high doses - ventricular arrhythmias, chest pain.
On the part of the digestive system: nausea, vomiting.
From the nervous system: anxiety, headache, fatigue, nervousness, sleep disturbance, psychoneurotic disorders, muscle twitching.
On the part of the urinary system: rarely - painful and difficult urination.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, bronchospasm, angioedema, erythema multiforme.
Other: increased sweating, hypokalemia, pain or burning sensation at the injection site.
With caution Adrenaline is used in atrial fibrillation, hypoxia, hypercapnia, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary hypertension, myocardial infarction, thyrotoxicosis, shock of non-allergic origin, occlusive vascular disease, cerebral glaucoma, cerebral atherosclerosis, anesthetic disease, anesthetic disease, anesthetic disease. means for anesthesia, as well as in elderly patients and children.
Epinephrine is not injected intraarterially, since a pronounced narrowing of peripheral vessels can cause the development of gangrene. For cardiac arrest, the drug may be administered intracoronary.
Analogues of Adrenaline
The most common analog is Adrenaline Hydrochloride Vial.
Terms and conditions of storage
Store Adrenaline should be at a temperature not higher than 15 ° C, protected from light. The shelf life of the drug is 3 years.