Acyclovir is a drug used to treat diseases caused by the herpes virus and Varicella zoster.
Release form and composition
Acyclovir is available in the form of tablets, ointments, creams, lyophilisates for preparing a solution for intravenous administration, the main active ingredient of which is acyclovir.
Acyclovir tablets are available in 200 and 400 mg in 20 or 30 pieces per pack; eye ointment - in tubes of 3, 5, 10 and 30 g or in banks of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 g; cream - in tubes of 2, 5 and 20 g; lyophilisate - in vials of 500 mg.
Indications for use
According to the instructions, Acyclovir in the form of tablets and injections is applied:
- With infections caused by herpes simplex viruses of the first and second types and Varicella zoster;
- For the prevention of the above infections;
- In the complex therapy after bone marrow transplantation and with pronounced immunodeficiency;
- After bone marrow transplantation in order to prevent cytomegalovirus infection.
Local funds are prescribed:
- With keratitis and other eye diseases caused by herpes simplex;
- For skin infections caused by herpes simplex and Varicella zoster.
According to the instructions, Acyclovir does not apply:
- If the patient has an increased sensitivity to acyclovir and valacyclovir;
- During breastfeeding (intravenous administration).
The drug is carefully used for renal failure, dehydration and neurological disorders.
Dosing and Administration
Acyclovir tablets are intended for oral administration; lyophilisate - to prepare a solution for intravenous drip; cream and ointment - for external use.
The dosage of Acyclovir is determined by the doctor depending on the clinical picture of the disease:
- In the treatment of herpes simplex infections of the skin and mucous membranes - 5 times a day, 200 mg for 5 days; the interval between daily receptions funds - 4 hours at night - 8 hours;
- In order to prevent the recurrence of herpes simplex infections in patients with a normal immune status, as well as in the recurrence of the disease, 4 times a day, 200 mg every 6 hours;
- In order to prevent herpes simplex infections in patients with immunodeficiency - 4 times a day, 200 mg every 6 hours; however, it is possible to increase the dosage of Acyclovir to 400 mg 5 times a day;
- In complex therapy after bone marrow implantation and with pronounced immunodeficiency - 5 times a day, 400 mg each;
- For infections caused by Varicella zoster, for adults and children weighing more than 40 kg, 5 times a day, 800 mg every 4 hours during the day and with an 8-hour night break for 7-10 days. Children over the age of 2 years - at the rate of 20 mg per kilogram of body weight 4 times a day for 5 days;
- When herpes zoster occurs in adults, 4 times a day, 800 mg every 6 hours for 5 days, children 2 to 6 years old, 4 times a day, 400 mg, children aged less than 2 years, 4 times a day, 200 mg either at the rate of 20 mg per kilogram of weight for 5 days.
Acyclovir tablets, according to the instructions taken after a meal or during it, with a glass of water.
The solution for injection is administered intravenously to patients over 12 years old every 8 hours, 5-10 mg of the drug per kilogram of weight. Patients from 3 months to 12 years - every 8 hours at 250-500 mg per square meter of body surface. Newborns are injected at 10 mg per pound of weight every 8 hours.
Cream and ointment Acyclovir applied up to 5 times a day on the affected skin for 5-10 days.
When using Acyclovir, certain adverse reactions may occur:
- Tablets: diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, skin rash, dizziness, headache, increased fatigue, hallucinations, decreased concentration, insomnia or drowsiness, fever, hair loss, lymphocytopenia, leukopenia, erythropenia, increased bilirubin, crepes , urea, liver enzyme activity;
- Solution for injection: crystalluria, acute renal failure, encephalopathy, nausea, vomiting, phlebitis, inflammation at the injection site;
- Local application of Acyclovir: superficial punctate keratitis, burning at the site of application, conjunctivitis, blepharitis;
- External use of Acyclovir: itching, peeling, skin rash, burning, dry skin, erythema at the site of application.
When applying Acyclovir, it should be borne in mind that:
- Due to the formation of a precipitate from the crystals of the drug, the development of acute renal failure is possible (especially with simultaneous use of nephrotoxic agents, with rapid intravenous administration, with insufficient water load, in patients with impaired renal function);
- The kidneys should be monitored;
- In elderly patients, drug therapy should be carried out with an increased water load and under medical supervision;
- For genital herpes, condoms should be used or sexual intercourse should be refused;
- The drug in the form of ointment and cream is not applied to the mucous membranes of the eye, mouth, vagina;
- Probenecid increases the half-life of the drug;
- When taking nephrotoxic drugs increases the risk of nephrotoxic effects;
- The effect of the drug is enhanced by immunostimulants;
- The preparation for intravenous administration has a pH of 11, which should be considered when mixing different solutions.
Analogues of Acyclovir are such drugs as Atsigerpine, Vivorax, Virolex, Gerpevir, Herpesin, Zovirax, Herperax, Herpes, Medovir, Lizavir, Tsitivir, Supravirand, Provirsan.
Terms and conditions of storage
Acyclovir tablets and lyophilisate are stored at a temperature of up to 25º for a maximum of three years; Acyclovir ointment and cream - at a temperature of 8-15º no more than two years.